In the digital age, supercomputing has become an indispensable resource for fostering innovation, economic growth and social cohesion in Europe. Supercomputing has become an indispensable resource in the digital age, thereby transforming research, businesses and our daily lives. It strongly increases the ability of researchers, industry, SMEs and government to process and analyse large amounts of data. The study demonstrates that the use of supercomputing for industrial and commercial applications in Europe has grown rapidly across many sectors such as automotive, renewable energy and mechanical engineering. To realise this potential, significant public (‘cornerstone’) investments in strategic HPC infrastructure and services are essential. This is expected to lead to the creation of public value via the growth of high-tech companies and the creation of new ecosystems across Europe. At the same time, new thinking is required about how to optimise the use of HPC infrastructure from a predominantly public good approach to ensure that adequate socio-economic returns are generated. This study analysis the key financing challenges of supercomputing in Europe and provides concrete recommendations on how to overcome the current investment gap in this strategic sector. It provides a new rationale for public and private investment as a basis for improving the conditions for robust and long-term financing.